After the northern provinces of the Netherlands proclaimed independence from Spain in 1571, Marranos of Spanish and Portuguese origin began to settle in Amsterdam. The first synagogue was constructed in 1614. Ashkenazic Jews began to settle in the city in the 1620's. By 1930, the Jewish population had grown to 65,000. With the Nazi rise to power, the number of refugees increased dramatically so that by 1941 the population was almost 80,000. Today, the Jewish population is estimated to be about 12,000.
Encyclopedia Judaica, CD Rom Edition, Keter Publishing
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