Czech Republic

 

General

       The Czech Republic came into existence on January 1, 1993, as a result of the division of Czechoslovakia into two nations-- The Czech Republic and Slovakia.  The Czech Republic consists of the historic countries of Bohemia, Moravia and part of Silesia which were under the control of the Hapsburg Empire until the founding of Czechoslovakia in 1918.  Although Jewish settlement and activity are documented from the 13th century onward, Jews were probably in the area from Roman times.

       According to the 1930 census, the total Jewish population in Czechoslovakia was about 357,000, with about 2/3 being resident in Bohemia, Moravia and Carpatho-Russia.  As a result of German control asserted after the Munich Agreement, by the start of World War II, the country had been divided as follows:  a German Protectorate was created for Bohemia and Moravia; the predominately Hungarian sections of Slovakia and Carpatho-Russia were ceded to Hungary; and Slovakia became an independent state.  At the time of the creation of the Protectorate, about 118,000 persons were classified as Jews, although only about 87,000 were members of local Jewish organizations.  The fate of the Jews in the Protectorate is best summarized from the Encyclopedia Judaica:

 

Communities Represented

                               Bzenec

                               Caslav

                               Frantiskovy Lazne (Franzensbad)

                               Hradec Kralove

                               Hranice

                               Karlovy Vary (Karlsbad)

                               Kromeriz

                               Liberec (Reichenberg)

                               Marianske Lazne

                               Mikulov (Nikolsburg)

                               Olomouc

                               Pardubice

                               Plzen (Pilsen)

                               Podivin

                               Prague

                               Sokolov (Falkenau)

                               Tabor

                               Teplice-Sanov

 

References

Encyclopedia Judaica, CD-Rom Edition, Keter Publishing

The Jews of Czechoslovakia, Jewish Publication Society, 1984

Encyclopedia of the Holocaust, MacMillan Publishing, 1990, P. 227-30

 

Copyright 1998-2005 Edward Victor