Soon after coming to power in January, 1933, the Nazis enacted their first wave of anti-Jewish legislation which dealt with employment. For example, on April 7, 1933, the "Law for the Restoration of the Professional Civil Service" was enacted. This law provided for the dismissal of all "non-Aryan" civil servants. Also, on the same day, a law was enacted which denied admission to the bar to lawyers of "non-Aryan descent". A few weeks later, laws were enacted barring "non-Aryan" students from German schools. By the end of 1933, Jews were effectively eliminated from public and government positions.
The next wave of anti-Jewish legislation came in 1935 with the passage of the Nuremberg Laws. Pursuant to these laws, Jews were stripped of their citizenship and voting rights. Additional laws prohibited marriage and sexual contact between Jews and Germans.
The final wave of anti-Jewish legislation took place primarily in 1938, starting with laws requiring Jews to report the value of all their property holdings. This law set the foundation for the total expropriation of all Jewish property. Also, laws were passed at this time precluding Jews from taking "Aryan" names. Jewish men were required to add the name of "Israel" to their own names, and Jewish women were required to add the name of "Sarah" to their own names.
Below are examples of various documents illustrating aspects of the anti-Jewish legislation. Below (Example 1) is a bill from a lawyer to a client. The letterhead indicates that his practice is limited to representing Jews.
Below (Example 2) is a notice to a client from a Jewish lawyer who was licensed to represent Jews who wished to leave Germany. The lawyer's cachet indicates that he was licensed to handle these matters.
Below (Example 3)is a form dated July 14, 1939, issued in Vienna permitting a Jew who was emigrating to Boliva, through Italy, to receive English money from the Jewish Council. Notice the use of the name Israel as a middle name which was required by the legislation discussed above
Below (Example 4) is a postcard dated June 18, 1941, from the Bayer company which has the Aryan merchandise sticker.
Below (Example 5) are two labels which Jewish doctors were required to apply to their offices and mail boxes. This resulted from legislation in 1933 barring Jewish physicians from the German National Health system.
Below (Example 6) are thumbnails of the front and back of a letter from a Jewish dentist to Berlin Finance Authority to reduce his income tax for 1941 on the basis of a pending legal case which he initiated for reversal of his classification as a Jew. If such reversal was allowed, he would be changed to a lower category an entitled to a refund of RM 412. The request is written on his printed stationery identifying him as a Jew permitted to treat Jewish patients, only. The letter is rubber stamped with an acknowledgement from the Finance Authority. Please click on the thumbnail to see the full image, and then click your back key or "Example 6" in the left frame to return.
Below (Example 7) are thumbnails of the front and back of an envelope sent by a Doctor, Willy Gronsfeld, in Berlin to Long Island, New York. Pursuant to legislation effective July 25, 1938, licenses of Jewish physicians would expire on September 30, 1938. The Interior Ministry could grant exceptions to permit some Jewish physicians to treat Jewish patients, only. These doctors were referred to as "Krankenbehandler" (treating the sick). The return address of the envelope below refers to Doctor Gronsfeld as a "prakt, Arzt" (medical practitioner) which is unusual. Please click on the thumbnail to see the full image, and then click your back key or "Example 7" in the left frame to return.
Arad, Gutman & Margaliot, Documents on the Holocaust
Dawidowicz, A Holocaust Reader
Rozett & Spector, Encyclopedia of the Holocaust
Holocaust Home Page
Copyright © 2001-06 Edward Victor